What is ADHD?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD disorder affects a person’s neurological development in their childhood. Children suffering from ADHD disorder may find it difficult to control their impulsive actions without thinking of the final result and paying attention in their workplace. These children may work over actively. Many doctors say that the symptoms of ADHD can develop in the early stages of childhood, and it can last long in their adulthood. And the sad thing about ADHD disorder is that medications can not cure its roots though doctors can manage ADHD by different therapy and medical help.
What are the types of ADHD?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders indicated three different types of ADHD disorder.
- Predominant hyperactive-impulsive disorder
- Predominant inattentive disorder
- Combined presentation disorder
Predominant hyperactive-impulsive disorder
In this type of disorder, a person wriggles and loquacious. It is challenging for a person to a standstill. People with this level of impulsiveness are more prone to injuries and accidents.
Predominant inattentive disorder
In this type of disorder, a person can forget details and can easily be distracted. It becomes challenging for children and adults to follow instructions, pay attention to every detail, and organize and finish the task.
Combined presentation disorder
An individual can have both of the symptoms mentioned above.
ADHD in Adults
As mentioned before, the problem of ADHD in an individual may last long in adulthood. Some of the Adults with ADHD never get themselves diagnosed, but ADHD symptoms are crystal clear. Adults with ADHD may face difficulty in their relationships, work, and at home. Many adults are unable to realize that they are suffering from this disorder. Adults with ADHD can be treated by following the technique of psychotherapy or meditation or a combination of both.
What causes ADHD?
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMS) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) worldwide are searching out the reasons why ADHD causes. The researcher has currently found that ADHD causes interaction between the environment and or non-genetic factors and genes. While the ADHD causes are not apparent yet, some of the reasons that may lead to this disorder are as follows.
- Problems during development
There are some other additional causes of ADHD.
- Premature delivery
- Injury to the brain
- Low weight when the child is born
- Excess use of tobacco and alcohol
- Exposure to an unhealthy environment. Example – high level of lead and pollution
Symptoms of ADHD
People affected by ADHD may find difficulty paying attention; they will be overactive to every situation, and they act without thinking.
One can see the following symptoms or combination of symptoms in the person affected by ADHD.
- Forgetful in daily life activities, such as chores, errands, returning calls, and keeping appointments
- Losing things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones
- Have problem organizing the tasks and activities, such as doing tasks in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, managing time, keeping work organized, and meeting deadlines
- Seems to not listing properly
- Overlooks or forgets details, makes careless mistakes at work, schoolwork, or performing other activities.
- Having problems putting attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading
- Fails to follow through on instructions, fails to finish schoolwork, daily life chores, or duties in the workplace, or starts the tasks but quickly loses focus and gets easily distracted.
- Avoid or dislike tasks that require a complete mental effort, such as in the workplace, preparing reports, completing forms, or reviewing lengthy papers.
- Become easily distracted by unnecessary thoughts or stimuli
- Always “on the go.”
- Blurts out an answer before the question ends.
- Interrupts or intrudes on other people.
- Finding it difficult to wait, such as while waiting in line
- Talks too much
- Unable to play or to do activities quietly.
- Not able to stay seated (in the classroom, workplace)
Other side-effects of ADHD
Though ADHD does not hinder an individual’s development, nor does it exaggerate any psychological problem to the individual, it may increase the risk of other psychological issues.
Following are some situations that can co-exist with ADHD
- Difficulty in learning
- Mood swings
- Anxiety disorder
- Other psychological issues
How doctors diagnose ADHD?
To conclude that a person has ADHD or not, one has to pass through different steps. There is no single test prescribed for the diagnosis of ADHD. And it is very challenging to diagnose ADHD. No one can spot it that easily. To detect ADHD, doctors use the American Psychiatric Association’s guidelines based on how many symptoms are shown by the individual and how long they carry it. Doctors can diagnose ADHD as of three types based on their symptoms.
- Inattentive type
- Impulsive type
- Combined type
What are the treatments for ADHD?
Though a permanent cure is not available for ADHD, with the help of available treatment, ADHD can be resolved and managed to some extent. Psychologists generally treat ADHD by using the following technique.
- ADHD Medications
- Education or training
- combination of the above treatments.
ADHD medications can reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity and improve concentration, learn, work, etc.
- Stimulants: These are an effective solution to ADHD as stimuli increase the brain’s chemical dopamine, which plays a significant role in concentration and thinking.
- Non -stimulants: These are prescribed by doctors when stimulant medications show some side effects on the individual or stimuli are not that useful. Examples of non-stimulants are Guanfacine and atomoxetine.
- Antidepressants: Sometimes, antidepressants are prescribed to adults to manage ADHD.
Though researchers suggest that therapy may not be an effective treatment for ADHD, adding this to a patient’s medication plan can help them cope with their daily life challenges. Different therapies are available for both children or teens and adults.
Education and Training
Adults and children who have ADHD require exceptional guidance and understanding from their well-wishers and loved ones so that they can understand their true potential and reach the epitome of success. Mental health professional does this education and training, and it includes the following:
- Stress management technique
- Parenting skill training
- Support groups
What are some popular ADHD medications?
The following are some popular medications for ADHD;